2. Linking Words (2)

2. Linking Words (2)

* Tim has to pull his socks up!

Main practise:  linking words
Revision:            clear up - at least

* To pull your socks up = an idiom, meaning: to improve.

although - linking contrasting points, i.e.

  • Although she was only twenty five she became a director of the company.

due to - because of, i.e.
  • Flights have been cancelled due to weather conditions.
  • Due to poor sales this last year we're going to have make some staff redundant.

- to begin a list of points, i.e.

  • Why does he need to retire? Well, firstly, he's too old to run a company that large. And, secondly, he's not in good health, the stress is too much for him.

    furthermore /  in addition  -  linking points in agreement, i.e.
  • Yes, I do recommend the college. The academic standards are very high. Furthermore / In addition, the sports facilities are excellent.
  • We're not going to pay the restaurant's service charge because our food arrived late and the waiter was rude. In addition / Furthermore, the music was too loud and the manager wouldn't turn it down.

however -  linking contrasting points, i.e.
  • That is what she told me, too. However, I don't think she's telling the truth.
  • We liked the house very much. However, I'm afraid it's just a bit too expensive for us.


Bill and Sam explain to their son, Tim, that he's got to improve his school work and has to *cut down on his social life, help around the home, and not use his phone or ipad after nine pm.

*cut down - Pharasal Verb, to reduce. 

Complete the sentences.
Sam: Right, young man, you've got to pull your socks up.

Tim: Why, what's the problem, mum?

Bill:  , your school work. Your grades are down and,
           , your teachers are worried about
           your behaviour, they say you're not concentrating in class.

Tim:  Well, I've been tired recently.

Sam:  Yes, and that's your social life: every weekend you're
            out at parties and clubs.

Bill:   And even on one or two weekday nights.

Tim:  Well, I'm young, I want to have fun.

Sam:  And, , Tim, you're not doing anything
            at home. you did help Dad in the garden last week
            you don't clear up your room and you never help with things like
            the washing up.

Tim:  Well, I always seem to be busy.

Bill:   Yes, with your social life, Tim. We know you're young,  ,
            your school work has to come first.

Sam: Then you need to help around the house, at least, by keeping
            your room tidy.

Bill:  And then, young man, you can go out with your friends and
           have some fun.

Tim: All right, I'll improve on things.

Sam: One more thing, you need to give us your phone and ipad every school
           night at nine.

Tim:  Oh, mum!


Complete the sentences with the language you've practised.

1.   he doesn't have much money he always gives something to beggars.

2.   I know you were late for your job. , you should have asked me before
      taking my car.

3.   Of course, we should invite her to speak to the students. She is a highly respected
      journalist and, , she's written three acclaimed novels
      and made an award-winning film.

4.  Well, , we need to discuss why, exactly, you need to borrow the money.

5.  I'm afraid that, his health problems, he would not be suitable for this job.

6.  No, you may not have a house party. Last time your friends left the house in a
     terrible mess. They also destroyed part of the garden. And they did
     apologise and help to clear up everything we don't want the same thing to
     happen again.