4. Linking words (3)

4. Linking words (3)

Tim stays out the night.

Main Practice:  Linking words
Revision:           so  -  Past Continuous   -  wide awake

Vocabulary
moreover -     adding another point in support of the first one, i.e.
  • We are not going to pay the service charge. The food came late, our vegetables were cold.
    Moreover, the waiter was rude.

although  -  contrasting two points, i.e.
  • Although everyone knows how important the enviroment is, Green politicians don't usually get elected. 

in spite of and despite -   contrasting two points. Both despite and in spite of can be followed by  ing   -   being + adjective   -   noun   -   adjective + noun, i.e.
  • Despite running / In spite of running  to the station he still missed the train.
  • Despite being / in spite of  being thousands of years old the pyramids are still standing.
  • Despite the weather / In spite of the weather we went for a walk.
  • Despite the bad weather / In spite of the bad weather we went for a walk.

* Also:   Despite the fact   /   In spite of the fact that + clause,  are possible, i.e.
  • Despite the fact / In spite of the fact that the weather was bad, we went for a walk.
Tim's parents, Bill and Sam, are not happy that he stayed out the night at a party when he has an exam tomorrow.

Complete the sentences.

Sam: Tim, * being told to come home by midnight you
           stayed at the party, why?

Tim: Mum, I didn't mean to. I was tired and sat down and fell asleep
           and when I woke up it was two in the morning so I stayed.

Sam: Why didn't you get a taxi at 11.30 as we told you to?

Tim: Sorry, I forgot. I was having such a good time.

Bill: You forgot.  * having an exam tomorrow,
          you forgot that you need to be wide awake today to study.

Sam: And you say you fell asleep I don't think I believe you.
           You had your phone switched off so we couldn't contact you. I think
           you were just enjoying yourself so much you didn't want to come home.

Tim: Yes, all right, that's the truth. I'm sorry. It won't happen again.

Bill: No more parties until your exams are finished. And, , for
          lying to us no pocket money for a month.

*In spite of and despite are interchangeable when followed by ing.


Exercise

Complete the sentences with the words you have practised.
Remember: use capital letters where necessary.

although  -  moreover  -  despite  -  being  -  the fact  -  in spite

1.   feeling very tired she played with the children for an hour. 

2.  In spite of only fourteen she beat all the adults in the chess
     competition.

3.  Despite that the public were not wholly in support the
     governement placed the railways into private ownership.

4.   the shopping centre was only thirty years old it had
      to be demolished.

5.   of not having a job he was able to borrow money from
      the bank.

6.  Your company delivered our furniture one week late. ,
     some of the furniture was damaged.