9. Linking words (2)

9. Linking words (2)

Books or tablets?

Main Practise:  Linking Words: while - despite - furthermore - as well as
Revision:             good point - I bet - Present Perfect

Notes:
Despite and though/even though - introduce contrasting points.  

Despite begins a sentence and can be followed by a noun phrase or ing
  • Despite the traffic pollution we enjoyed our stay in the city.
  • Despite studying hard she failed the exam.

Though/even though, (even makes though stronger)  usually begin a sentence and can be followed by a clause and a comma, i.e.
  • Though he'd only worked at the company for two years he was promoted to department manager.
  • Even though she didn't have a job, she gave some money to the beggar.

furthermore and as well as - to add a point.

Furthermore, is quite formal, usually begins a sentence and often means: Here is another point to consider, while as well as essentially means too. i.e.
  • The company has not been investing enough in new technology. Furthermore, break-times are too short and the canteen food is of poor quality.
  • The new managing director has increased the technology budge and staff break time. Furthermore, she's got much better food put on the canteen menu.
  • He likes classical music as well as rock. You've been late every morning.
  • As well as taking a longer lunch hour than you should you leave work too early.

Vocabulary
distraction - something that disturbs concentration or takes attention onto something else.

(I) bet - (informal) to say you are sure about something, i.e.
  • I bet he'll be late, he always is.
  • Twelve hours a day! I bet she wishes she hadn't taken the job.

kids  -  (slang) children

research  -  organized study in order to establish facts, i.e. 
  • He's undertaking research into damage to coral reefs.
  • She heads the research team studying Mars.

to pay attention  -   to focus concentration on something, i.e.
  • Could everybody please pay attention to the instructions for the meeting tomorrow.
Bill, a high school teacher, discusses books and tablets with the Deputy Head teacher, Ann. Bill has a less positive view of using tablets than the Deputy Head.

Complete the sentences.

DH
: The Head wants the children to use tablets for more classroom learning.

Bill: Well, I can see the advantages of that, I can also see the disadvantages, Ann.

DH: Such as?

Bill: There are too many distractions with tablets , the kids will be going on apps and emails
          playing games instead of paying attention to the lesson.

DH: Good point. But research shows tablets help faster learning. , they are much
         easier for the kids to carry than a bagful of books. Another thing, Bill, tablets let you
         highlight and edit texts. And they have search functions and built-in dictionaries. 

Bill: Well, some research found that people who read print text understand and
          remember more than those who read digital text, and  having used a tablet this
          year for English my son's grades were no better than last year. And remember, Ann, print
          textbooks don't crash.

DH:   I accept all you say, Bill, but I'm sure your son says using a tablet makes learning fun.

Bill:   He does, but most teenagers would say that.


Exercise

Complete the sentences: 

even though  -  as well as  -  despite  -  furthermore

1. being famous she still travels on public transport.  

2. To open a restaurant in this town would be a great investment opportunity. , it
     would be a great town for us to live in.

3. English is his second language he scored A* in his English Literature exam.

4. feeling unwell the nurse worked her shift at the hospital.

5. working all day she's a single mother to three children.

6. He was made *redundant, he'd worked for the company for twenty-five years.

    * Notice: He was made redundant despite working for the company for twenty-five years.

*to be made redundant = to lose your job because a company doesn't need you any more.