12. Expressions of cause and result
Main practice:  expressions of cause and result
Revision:            Present Continuous - without + noun

(an) economy  -  a country or region's production and consumption of goods and the supply        
                                 of money, i.e.
  • The island's economy improved after new methods of farming were introduced.

infrastructure  -  the basic things, (buildings, roads, power supplies, schools, hospitals, etc.)
                                  needed for a society to operate, i.e.
  • The war destroyed the city's infrastructure.

persuade - reasoning to make someone do or believe something, i.e.
  • I keep trying to persuade her to have a holiday but she says she can't afford to.
  • The government claims it has been successful in persuading people to eat a healthier diet.

outcome - result, i.e.
  • The outcome of the meeting was that the staff will now have their lunch increased to one hour.

poverty - the state of being poor, i.e.
  • Poverty is even a problem in some developed countries.

(a) vicious circle  - (Idiom) where one problem leads to another keeping the situation going
                                       or making it worse, i.e
  • He got trapped in a vicious circle of being in debt then borrowing more money to pay the debt which, of course, only made it bigger.

Tim, Ravi and Mike are trying to persuade their school class to collectively do something to help reduce world poverty.

Complete the conversation.

Tim:  Okay, everybody so, lets look at the poverty in the world.
            Firstly, poverty can be caused by war and political instability.

Mike:  That's right and it can also be a lack of education. Without an education
              people can't get a good job and help their economy to improve.

Ravi:  Yes, and extreme weather and natural disasters can also poverty.

Tim:   Right, and of poverty a country can't build the infrastructures it needs
             to start escaping from poverty.

Mike:  And, , good education can't happen and so the whole situation becomes
              a vicious circle.

Ravi:    The being that poor countries remain poor.


Complete the sentences.

as a result of - cause of - lead to - consequently - due to

1. There is now no doubt that smoking can cancer.

2. She kept coming to work late and, , she was fired.

3. The the flooding was several weeks of heavy rain.

4. The increase in the price of wheat is bad harvests.

5. recent high levels of pollution we are considering making
    areas of the city car-free.