14. Similarities and Differences

14. Similarities and Differences

Sam asks about Ravi's family.

Main Practice:  Words for similarities and differences
Revision:             Relative Clauses  -  Present Participles

absolutely  -  strong agreement; a strong 'yes', i.e. 
-  Are you really going ask the boss for longer breaks?
- Absolutely, two ten-minute coffee breaks and a twenty-minute lunch in eight hours is not 
   enough, in fact, it's *outrageous. 
* outrageous - shockingly bad, unacceptable

alike  -  adjective: similar in appearance or character, i.e.
  • The two brothers are very alike.
alike  -  adverb: the same, i.e.
  • The new college rules affect teaches and students alike.
quite alike  - similar; almost the same, i.e.
  • The two computers are quite alike but this one is faster. 

both  -  two people or things considered together, i.e.
  • I like both tennis and hockey.
  • Both the rivers flow to the sea but only the northern one is polluted.

different from  -  not the same as another, or each other, i.e.
  • Our new house is very different from our old house.
  • My two grandmothers are very different from each other.

(a) fanatic  -  in this conversation:  to be very enthusiastic about a past-time or hobby, i.e.
  • She's a fanatic about chess. She spends all her free time practising the game.
  • He's fanatical (adj) about computer games; he never does anything else but play them.

(to) have a lot in common  -  sharing attitudes or background, interests and likes with
                                                          another person, i.e.
  • I have a lot in common with Alice: we grew up in the same town, went to the same school and we're both atheletes. 
  • The two scientific theories have a lot in common but only Professor Brown's became well-known.
Opposite: to have nothing in common

lively  -  full of energy, i.e.
  • The town has a very lively night-life.
  • It's nine o'clock but the children are still so lively; I can't get them to go to bed.

to be into something  -  to be enthusiastic about, to like something very much, i.e.
- Jan's really into classical music.
- Alan's into tennis right now; he plays every day.

neither  -  a negative statement which applies to two things or people, i.e.
  • Neither of these mobile phones can access the internet.
  • I'm not going to the party and neither is Jan.
  • Neither car is cheap. (Both are expensive.)
- Would you like tea or coffee?
- Neither, thank you, just water.

outgoing  -  to be very sociable, i.e.
  • He has an outgoing personality; he makes friends very easily. 
  • She was a very outgoing teenager but now she spends most of her time alone.

(a) sense of humour  -  to appreciate / enjoy humour, i.e.
  • My brother is so serious about everything; he has no sense of humour.
  • My mum has a great sense of humour: she sees the funny side of most things. 

similar (to)  -  sharing qualities but not exactly the same, i.e.
  • I didn't enjoy the novel; its the plot was too similar to the last book he wrote. 
  • She's similiar to her mother in many ways.
  • Yes, the houses are very similar but ours has a bigger garden. 
Tim has a good friend, Ravi. Tim's mother, Sam, learns something about Ravi's sister and brother.

Complete the

Hint: both is used three times.

Sam:  Does Ravi have any brothers and sisters?

Tim:   Yes, he has a brother, Daman, who's three years older, and a sister, Saloni, who's
             one year younger.

Sam:   Okay. Are they like Ravi, lively, talkative?

Tim:    Well, Saloni and Ravi are and they . They're
              both outgoing and have the same sense of humour. And they're into jazz

Sam:    And Daman?

Tim:     Right, well, Daman is very Ravi and Saloni. He's much quieter and
              more serious. He's his father. of them are outgoing,
              are very calm and rather serious and they're chess fanatics, too.

Sam:     And Ravi's mum, I suppose, is like Ravi and his sister?

Tim:     Absolutely. Mrs Shankar is a very energetic lady, talking, laughing all the time.
               She's a lot of fun.


Complete the sentences with the language you've practised.

Use capital letters where necessary.

different from  -  quite alike  -  both  -  similar to  -  neither  -  have a lot in common

1.  The two movies , both are based on science-fiction novels, for
     example, but only Stargazer won an oscar.

2.  The two towns are very each other. Bampton is smaller and more historical
     and has no industrical complex.

3.  I'm my brother, we're both into acting and theatre but of us are sporty,
     though we do work out at the gym.

4.  Well, the two houses are . are detached with large gardens and have
     swimming pools but of them have garages.

5.  No, I wouldn't buy the car, it's completely their last model, and very 
     inferior, in my opinion.